SMY Apr-Jun 2012

SMY Apr-Jun 2012

From the President's Desk

In the current k-economy, lifelong learning, as well as making provisions for it, are of paramount importance in nation building. In the construction industry CIDB has played a key role in providing opportunities for the development of new technologies and human resource that power the industry through its state-of-the art facilities.

In this issue we will look at CIDB's efforts toward sustainable nation building and industry development through their Youth Development Training Programme run at their construction academies (Akademi Binaan Negara) and the rigourous research and development activities that take place in the Construction Research Institute's (CREAM) building, in Cheras. It is hoped that the country will generate enough skilled manpower and develop high-tech systems that will allow a significantly reduced dependence on foreign workers in the industry and propel our own countrymen into internationally recognised career success in this field.

We will also look at part two of the oil and gas series and learn about flame proof steel coating. Walking down memory lane we will revisit the Falkirk Wheel, which has been dubbed the worlds' only rotating boat lift - another marvel of the amazing material that is steel.

Dato' Sri Ir. Dr. Judin Hj. Abdul Karim

President

CREAM de la Crème – Building Green Buildings

CREAM de la Crème –
Building Green Buildings

 

The Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM) is a subsidiary company of Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) incorporated eight years ago to enhance the productivity and competitiveness for the construction industry through research & development (R&D) activities. CREAM disburses funds, manages and undertakes R&D projects with practical outcomes, including the promotion and commercialisation of their R&D products such as the Industrialized Building System (IBS) component and building materials, towards a green and sustainable construction industry.

To run CREAM activities it was essential that a specialised CREAM building was erected, to house CIDB's own subsidiaries including the IBS Centre, CIDB Convention Centre and Akademi Binaan Malaysia (ABM, Central Region), all of which provide one facet of R&D or another: to pool IBS know-how, to provide a venue where industry players congregate and share ideas, and to offer training for a skilled construction workforce. Another important entity occupying the building is Makmal Kerja Raya Malaysia (MKRM) - a full scale, heavy structural engineering laboratory in which CREAM's R&D activities could take place. Local experts Arkitek Nurcipta Sdn Bhd and Jurutera IRCE Sdn Bhd were thus commissioned to design and build this state of the art facility.

Situated at Jalan Chan Sow Lin, Cheras, the building is a large stand-alone establishment which itself is a green one being made primarily of steel, the construction material of choice when it comes to economically, environmentally and socially sustainable structures. While reinforced concrete (RC) has been used for its grade beams and slabs and Bondek WZ RC for other slabs, other structures within the building, as well as its curved rooftops, are made of steel. Construction of the handsome, rectangular building began in mid-2008 and was completed in March the following year.

Upon the installation and commissioning of the laboratory equipment that followed soon afterwards, CREAM's MKRM laboratory became fully operational in January 2010. The laboratory's provisions include a 15m by 26m reaction floor, a 6m by 6m reaction wall, 2000kN universal testing machine, 200kN dynamic testing machine, static actuators with a maximum capacity of 2000kN, a 300kN dynamic actuator and a concrete compression machine with a maximum capacity of 5000kN – all of which allows for various types of tests from basic small scale experiments to structural tests which could be performed on actual IBS structures, girders, bridges etc. With technical input from MIMOS it is also the first laboratory of its kind in the country to employ Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that utilizes the internet in its concrete compression testing facilities.

Furthermore, in an effort to improve the quality of IBS construction systems manufactured locally and to provide local researchers and engineers assistance in assessing the performance and behaviour of structural components used in Malaysia's construction industry in a demanding, ever-changing era, CREAM, through MKRM which is also self-accrediting, provides specialised testing services, including calibration and durability tests as well as determining the dynamic strength properties of materials and components, and the testing of full scale structural components, which thus far is not available elsewhere. It also offers a Green Assessment System in Construction (GASSIC) to encourage the use of green systems and technology as well as sustainable materials in the industry, among other assessment systems they developed.

The IBS and Convention Centre as well as the Central Region ABM, likewise, are both a reflection and an effort of CREAM's aspiration to produce construction technologies and manpower that are exportable worldwide. They each are outfitted with the latest articles and facilities that aid in the process of construction development. On the whole, the CREAM building is a prime example of sustainable construction in itself – green and making green the construction industry, paving the way for local players to acquire the skills and technology in order to become sustainably productive and globally competitive.

 

CREAM disburses funds, manages and undertakes R&D projects with practical outcomes...

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

...the building is a large stand-alone establishment which itself is a green one being made primarily of steel...

 

 

 

 

 

  

...CREAM, through MKRM which is also self-accrediting, provides specialised testing services...

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.

MSSA Outreach Programme 2012

MSSA
Outreach Programme
2012 

The intention for liberalising the local services sector as announced by prime Minister Dato Sri Mohammad Najib Tun Abdul Razak in April 2009 was to attract more investments, bring in more professionals and technology as well as strengthen competitiveness of the sector, but what comes along with such a measure for economic growth is also an intense need for capacity building, especially among small and medium industries.

To help cushion some of the impact brought about by this liberalisation, financial aid is offered through the Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA)’s Services Sector Capacity Development Fund (SSCDF) from which registered services industry associations/professional bodies; or entities registered under the Companies Act 1965 or the Registration of Business Act 1956 with at least 60 per cent Malaysian equity could obtain a grant of up to RM500,000 for Training or Outreach Programmes, accreditation, mergers and acquisitions as well as upgrading and modernisation. In line with this, the Malaysian Structural Steel Association, MSSA, undertakes a key role in providing training through their own Outreach Programme, delivered by award-winning, internationally acclaimed speakers such as Dr Azlan Adnan, Associate Professor at the Structural and Material Department of UTM’s (University Technology Malaysia) Faculty of Civil Engineering.

In 2010 Associate Professor Dr Azlan gave fifteen presentations on the design of buildings for MSSA members outside of Kuala Lumpur: engineers and architects all over the country, from Johor Bahru and Penang to Kuching and Kota Kinabalu. Three years have passed, and MSSA is once again geared up for another round of Outreach activity, set for the end of this year. Being a platform on which the construction industry players could translate knowledge into business opportunities, MSSA hopes to be a stepping stone towards sustainable development in the construction industry in all three of its core dimensions: environmental, social and economic. The Outreach Programme is offered to provide an opportunity for MSSA members who are located away from the MSSA office to participate in and to benefit directly from the association and its activities.

MSSA forms collaborations with the Construction Industry Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM) and other research centres such as universities to identify suitable areas for Research and Development (R&D) and, to transform research into potential business opportunities. This should accelerate capacity building for the local talents in the construction industry by training and exposing them to new and improved ways of designing (especially using steel, the material of choice) and to new networks, and market segments. The information sharing sessions would also enhance their awareness for the kind of government support they can get from agencies such as the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), Economic Planning Unit (EPU), Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation (MATRADE), Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC), universities, the EXIM Bank of Malaysia and of course, MIDA. Ultimately, having gained from such a rich pool of information and resource, local industry players could participate confidently and competitively in the global arena.

MIDA Director-general Datuk Jalilah Baba was quoted to have said they were keen on disbursing the funds and signing up for MSSA’s Outreach Programme entitles associations / professional bodies a disbursement for 50 per cent of approved amount upon approval (up to RM500,000, as aforementioned); and the remaining 50 per cent of grant upon the completion of the programme(s).

Eligible applicants may submit a filled out SSCDF (09) form to the address below for consideration:

Director-General
Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA)
5th Floor, Block 4, Plaza Sentral
Jalan Stesen Sentral 5
50470 Kuala Lumpur

P.O. Box 10618
50720 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
(Attn.: Senior Director Services)

Applications for soft loan should be made using Loan Application Form and to be submitted to:

Malaysian Industrial Development Finance Berhad
Level 14, Menara MIDF
82, Jalan Raja Chulan
50200 Kuala Lumpur
P.O. Box 12110
50939 Kuala Lumpur

Further enquiry may be referred to:-

Grant Applications

Business and Other Services Division
Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA)

No. Tel.: 03-2267 6723
No. Fax: 03-2267 6655
Website: http://www.mida.gov.my
Email: services@mida.gov.my

or

Soft Loan Applications

Malaysian Industrial Development Finance Berhad

No. Tel.: 03-2173 8888
No. Fax: 03-2772 1911
Website: http://www.midf.com.my
Email: inquiry-feedback@midf.com.my
 

MSSA, undertakes a key role in providing training through their own Outreach Programme, delivered by award-winning, internationally acclaimed speakers such as Dr Azlan Adnan...

Being a platform on which the construction industry players could translate knowledge into business opportunities...

..exposing them to new and improved ways of designing (especially using steel, the material of choice) and to new networks, and market segments.

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.

SMY Apr-Jun 2012

Amazing Steel: The Falkirk Wheel

Amazing Steel:

THE FALKIRK WHEEL

There is a must-see amazing steel structure in Falkirk which is touted as the worlds' only rotating boat lift. Before the railways came to Scotland, there were two main canals which connected major towns to the local coalfields. The Forth & Clyde canal was the first, with work starting in 1768. Eventually the canal connected to the River Clyde with a branch cut down to Glasgow. The full 56 km canal with 39 locks and 32 swing bridges began operation in 1790. It was wide and deep enough that sea going barges could navigate from the West side of Scotland to the East side and vice versa, bringing prosperity to the region and allowing manufacturers to move their good to the European markets. Indeed, the design for the famous "puffer" steam-powered boats was developed on this canal, thus allowing a passenger service to be started.

Starting in Edinburgh, the Union canal was cut through to Falkirk and the Forth & Clyde canal, opening in 1822. As a semi-contour canal, there are no locks along its 51 km route as it follows the 73 metre (240 ft) contour across the land. However, to maintain that level many impressive aqueducts, tunnels and bridges had to be built which are marvels in themselves.

  

The original link between the two canals at Falkirk was via a series of 11 locks to allow boats to rise or fall the 35 meters between the two water levels. Anyone who has had a holiday on a canal boat will tell of the toil necessary in navigating down through a canal lock. First the back gates are opened and the boat guided in. Then the back gates are shut and the sluices opened in the front gates to let the water rush out to the lower level. When the water levels have evened out, the sluices are shut and the front gates are opened so that the boat can continue its journey. Going up is the reverse process. When busy, there is a queue and the boat has to wait its turn. This takes time, energy and patience. Whilst the modern canal user may be doing this for fun, in the 1800's the canals were used by dour Scottish bargemen who did not think much of the 1 day that it took to get a boat through the 11 locks from one canal to the other.

Once railways came to the area, both canals began to decline. In 1933 the 11 locks linking the two canals were filled in and built over. In 1970, the M8 motorway was simply built across the Union, thus blocking the canal. The Forth & Clyde canal suffered the same fate of disuse and decline.
Rescue came in the form of a huge £84.5 million Millennium restoration project to clear all the obstacles blocking both canals and reopen in 2001 for pleasure cruises which have become a very popular pastime. The towpaths are available for walking and cycling and the whole area has become refurbished and revitalised, creating jobs and tourism. However, rebuilding the 11 locks at Falkirk was not an option, hence the need for an innovative boat lift.

Many designs were presented, but the design finally chosen uses two gondolas which counterbalance each other. They individually weigh 300 Tonnes when filled with 500,000 litres of water, and a clever aspect of the design exploits Archimedes' Principle in that a body displaces its own weight in water, so when up to eight boats are guided into a gondola, the gondola still weighs the same as it did without any boats. One gondola is at the bottom of a huge arm and is open to the Forth & Clyde canal. The other gondola is held vertically above and is connected via an aqueduct and tunnel to a new stretch of the Union canal especially built for the purpose. The whole structure holding the two counterbalanced gondolas then rotates on a 3.5 metre axle using only 1.5 KWh of electricity to turn the 600 Tonne weight through 180° in 5½ minutes. Another clever aspect uses a set of 8 m diameter cog wheels to make sure the gondolas stay level as the wheel rotates.

The structure uses 1,200 Tonnes of steel bolted together with a 10mm tolerance using 15,000 bolts into 45,000 holes rather than welds as it was felt that welds would not be able to withstand the ever changing stresses that build up as the structure turns. It took 35 lorry loads to carry the parts to the work site from Butterley Engineering Works in Derbyshire. The wheel was opened to the public by Queen Elizabeth in May 2002.

What used to take a day to navigate 11 locks can now be completed a few minutes thanks to this engineering marvel in steel!

 

The original link between the two canals at Falkirk was via a series of 11 locks to allow boats to rise or fall the 35 meters between the two water levels.

Rescue came in the form of a huge £84.5 million Millennium restoration project to clear all the obstacles blocking both canals...

The structure uses 1,200 Tonnes of steel bolted together with a 10mm tolerance using 15,000 bolts into 45,000 holes rather than welds....

.

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.

Training in Welding

Training in Welding

Never before has training been more instrumental in a nation’s prosperity than in the current knowledge and skills-based economy. In the construction industry, apprenticeships that used to suffice in yesteryears are no longer adequate to guarantee a skilled workforce for increased productivity. In recent times, for the dire shortage in skilled local workmen, the country has been heavily dependent on foreign labourers to fill in the void in certain trades. This unfortunately is counter-productive to the nation’s economy in the long run.

For this reason, Malaysia’s Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), in the pursuit of enhanced human resource for the construction industry, presents an opportunity for young Malaysians to acquire a formal training for a career in construction through their Youth Skills Training Programme held at CIDB’s own Malaysian Construction Academies (Akademi Pembinaan Malaysia, ABM) as well as several CIDB qualified training centres located nationwide - completely free of charge.

The programme primarily aims to enhance Malaysian’s own skilled workforce in the construction industry and henceforth reduce the dependence on foreign workers in this trade. Just as importantly, it is hoped that the training offered will produce a sterling labour force that will not only be more productive and efficient but also possess an increased awareness of safety standards and quality workmanship, skilled at handling the most up-to-date construction technology – qualities that would render them a highly-sought after exportable commodity. Target groups for the programme include youth in the 16 to 35 age bracket, either school leavers (categorised as the youth group, or Belia) or existing construction personnel (categorised as Personel).

The programme offers ten trade-based pathways from which participants could select specific courses to enrol in: Building, Industrialised Building Systems, Crane Operation, Plant Operation, Mechanics and Electrical, Drafting, Civil, Welding, Blasting and Painting and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). All of the courses – totalling sixty modules which include two uncategorised courses, Construction Diver and Rope Access Technician – have been designed and are delivered by CIDB’s highly-qualified personnel, based on what they have identified to be key areas in construction which require training. Both the theoretical and practical aspects underpinning each area are dealt with thoroughly and rigourously.

Welding, for example, is one of the key areas which have been given due attention in this training programme. A course in Welding is one of three levels, each of which takes five days to complete for existing construction workers i.e. the Personel group. School leavers, or Belia, however, will spend a month to complete the first level and two weeks each for Levels 2 and 3. Level 1 is offered at the At Level 1, participants of either group will learn about 1G, or flat Welding, the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Process, and Carbon Steel. Advancing to Level 2 will require a certification of 1G Welding (from either CIDB or other recognised institution) and introduce trainees to 3G and 4G Welding, the SMAW, GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) and FCAW (Flux-cored Arc Welding) Processes, as well as the welding materials Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel and Aluminium. A certification of 3G Welding is a prerequisite for enrolling into Level 3, in which trainees learn about the welding processes and materials covered in Level 2 as well as 5G, 6G and 6GC Welding.

The incentives for enrolment include the internationally recognised CSWIP, or Certification Scheme for Welding and Inspection Personnel with which successful trainees can pursue a career anywhere in the world. The Belia group is also provided with free lodging and food, T-shirts and safety helmets as well as an allowance of RM50.00. There have also been trainees who move on to a higher education in architecture and engineering as a result of the exposure obtained from the courses.

CIDB’s training centres, or ABM’s, located by region in Sintok (Northern Region)Kuala Lumpur (Central); Tampoi (Southern); Kuala Berang (Eastern); Kuching (Sarawak) and Kota Kinabalu (Sabah) are equipped with the facilities required for the courses it provides. The training is also provided at the numerous Pusat Giat MARA and Institut Kemahiran Belia Negara (IKBN), and The Welding Institute (TWI) in Sungai Buloh. There are plans to increase the number of centres in which the courses could be offered, so that more young Malaysians may have the opportunity to enrol in the courses and benefit from them. Thus far CIDB has been successful in this charitable venture, but they hope that more youth will come forth and take the opportunity to be trained and become highly-skilled with the technologies that drive the construction industry, and ultimately contribute to the development of the country.

 

...presents an opportunity for young Malaysians to acquire a formal training for a career in construction through their Youth Skills Training Programme....

All of the courses – totalling sixty modules....have been designed and are delivered by CIDB’s highly-qualified personnel, based on what they have identified to be key areas in construction which require training.

The incentives for enrolment include the internationally recognised CSWIP, or Certification Scheme for Welding and Inspection Personnel with which successful trainees can pursue a career anywhere in the world.

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.

Fundamental in Oil & Gas: Series 2

Fundamentals of Oil and Gas: Series 2
Getting to the Core

Although different in nature, oil and gas are products obtained from the same source - petroleum. Derived from the Latin word petro or rock and oleum or oil, “petroleum” is meant to be understood as fluid found in rock. Petroleum naturally occurs in liquid, gas, semi-solid or solid forms. It is a mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon molecules found in the sub-surface of the earth’s crust. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. Methane, n-butane, benzene and cyclo-hexane are some examples of the hydrocarbons.

The common misconception is that oil and gas are contained in a basin or lake since the term “reservoir” is often used. They are not found in large holes of the subsurface nor are they found in caves. They are found in the pores of rocks. When magnified, rocks have miniscule pores which allow oil and gas to percolate. In this sense, the rock has a similar characteristic of a sponge. Oil and gas can move within the rock and it is the nature of the rock which determines the movement of the oil and gas.

Petroleum needs 65 to 350 million years to develop. Interestingly, petroleum is made from a micro-organism called plankton, which are found in abundance in most pelagic zones or bodies of fresh water and are a major food source for fish such as shrimps, jellyfish and whales.

Figure 1: Deposition and burial of organic matter

Deposits of the dead plankton are accumulated in a rock structure called the source rock. Plankton, algae, spores, pollen and plants which have been buried and exposed to increased temperature and pressure are transformed to kerogen, a prerequisite for the formation of hydrocarbons. When enough hydrocarbons are produced, they would then be expelled.

Figure 2: Microscopic view of reservoir rock

The hydrocarbons flow through a carrier rock before they reach the reservoir rock which then serves as a transporter. It is far from a trap or a seal rock but supports the hydrocarbons as it migrates through capillary pressure and buoyancy. For an oil reservoir to form, porous rock needs to be covered by a non-porous layer such as salt, shale, chalk or mud rock that does not allow hydrocarbons to leak from the structure.

Figure 3: Oil migration into reservoir rock

Trap rock retains the hydrocarbons in the reservoir rock. Without a seal rock, hydrocarbons cannot be retained. The hydrocarbons will flow until they reach another reservoir with a trap and seal rock. Seal rock is impermeable and made up of fine grains or salt such as shale, anhydrite and gypsum. Its impermeability prevents the migration of hydrocarbons and retains the hydrocarbon in a reservoir under a trap. Reservoirs exist anywhere from the land surface to 30,000 ft (9,000 m) below the surface and are in a variety of shapes, sizes and ages. The hydrocarbons will stay in the reservoir until they are discovered, extracted and processed into oil and gas products like the hydrocarbons that lie in the reservoirs found in the Malay, Sabah and Sarawak basins of Malaysia.

The state of oil and gas in Malaysia

Oil and gas is produced in most parts of the world. Malaysia, China, India, Indonesia and Australia are five proven oil reserve holders in the Asia-Pacific region. Despite the depletion of oil and gas reservoirs in Malaysia, aggregate production capacity is expected to rise with the development of new offshore oil and gas fields. New investment opportunities in the bid to enhance output from existing fields and to develop new deepwater offshore fields are encouraged by the government. Most of the oil comes from offshore fields located on the Malay basin in the west and the Sabah and Sarawak basins in the east. Much of the country’s oil reserves are found off Peninsula Malaysia, while much of the natural gas production comes from Eastern Malaysia and offshore Sabah and Sarawak.

Petroleum exploration in Malaysia started in early 1900 when oil was first discovered in Sarawak and oil production began in 1910. Since then, oil companies were granted exclusive rights by the respective state governments for the exploration and production of natural resources. With the implementation of the Petroleum Development Act in 1975, PETRONAS became the sole custodian of all petroleum resources in Malaysia.Expenditure and profits that stem from these explorations and production are managed by Production Sharing Contracts (PSC). PSCs are signed between PETRONAS and a resource extraction company or group of companies. PSCs determine the amount of the extracted resources each involved party will receive. Extraction companies, who are referred to as contractors, assume all risks and source the funds required for the production of the resources.

All foreign and private companies including ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, and BP must operate through PSC with PETRONAS. Related policies like energy policies are designed and overseen by the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) and the Implementation and Coordination Unit (ICU). They report directly to the Prime Minister.Malaysia has the world’s 14th largest natural gas reserve and 23rdlargest crude oil reserve with the production of 2000 million cubic feet per day of natural gas and 730,000 barrels per day (bpd) of crude oil. One barrel is equivalent to 159 litres while gas is measured in cubic feet. One cubic foot is equivalent to 28.3 litres. PETRONAS and its PSC partners are actively exploring offshore areas and focusing on deepwater fields on the eastern continental shelf. Approximately 615,100 sq km of acreages are available for oil and gas exploration and of these, 36% are covered by PSC.

The oil and gas industry in Malaysia remains confident as it actively conducts enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the midst of depleting oil and gas reservoirs. Through EOR technology, the amounts of crude oil that can be extracted from existing oil fields are expected to yield a promising return. With the support from the government, PETRONAS and its partners will continue with the exploration and production of oil and gas to meet the escalating global energy demand.

 

Interestingly, petroleum is made from a micro-organism called plankton, which are found in abundance in most pelagic zones or bodies of fresh water and are a major food source for fish such as shrimps, jellyfish and whales.

Reservoirs exist anywhere from the land surface to 30,000 ft (9,000 m) below the surface and are in a variety of shapes, sizes and ages.

Malaysia has the world’s 14th largest natural gas reserve and 23rd largest crude oil reserve with the production of 2000 million cubic feet per day of natural gas and 730,000 barrels per day (bpd) of crude oil.

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.

Intumescent Fire Protective Coating for Steel

Intumescent
Fire Protective Coating
for Steel

Intumescent fire protective coatings are widely used as passive fire protection in oil and gas industries, civil buildings, chemical plants and other facilities in developed countries. Intumescent coatings are composed of three fire retardant additives: an acid source (such as ammonium polyphosphate), a carbon source (such as pentaerythritol), and a blowing agent (such as melamine) bound together by a binder. The formulation of the coating has to be optimized in terms of physical and chemical processes in order to produce an effective protective char layer upon exposure to fire [1,2]. As yet, in Malaysia there is a lack of extensive research in the field of fire protective coatings and of awareness of its role and ability in the containment of fires. This coating is typically applied on steel structures to maintain the structure properties below the critical temperature of 550°C (Fig. 1) [3].

Figure 1. The steel structures coated with intumescent coating.

Indeed, prevention of the structural collapse of the building is paramount to ensuring the safe evacuation of people from the building, and is a prime requirement of building regulations in many countries. Current commercial intumescent coatings are very costly due to the materials used and will incur immense additional expenses in the building and construction line. Besides that, intumescent coatings are not as frequently used as active fire protection due to lack of knowledge and exposure to its potential as a highly effective fire protection that is able to reduce the rate of fire spread. This fire-resistive coating has the capability to protect structural buildings from extensive fire damage, while at the same time offering additional benefits to the coated substrates including water resistance and corrosion protection. The main objective of this project is to develop a highly effective fire-resistive coating to maintain the steel's integrity and properties between 1-3 hours of fire exposure at temperatures below 500ºC, which may well prevent or delay structural collapse.

At present, research in intumescent fire-resistive coating for steel has been done by M.C. Yew & NH. Ramli Sulong (2012) studied the behavior of protected and unprotected steel plates in a fire test [4]. The variation of temperatures recorded from the protected and unprotected steel plates during the heating and cooling phases of the furnace test were compared to the furnace and Eurocode fire curves (Fig. 2). The difference between the temperatures of the protected and unprotected steel plates increased to almost 450 °C after about 22 min. The furnace test results show that the steel plate with fire protection could maintain its integrity and properties (Fig. 2a) whereas the steel plate without fire protection exhibited severe deformation due to loss of strength and stiffness (Fig. 2b).

Figure 2. Time–temperature curves of (a) protected and (b) unprotected steel plates [4]

The intumescent fire protective coating on the steel formed an insulating multi-cellular layer on heating (Fig. 3a), which acts as a thermal barrier that effectively protects the substrate against fire. Fig. 3b shows the residue obtained after the test.

This intumescent coating is applicable to all industries, since it addresses fire-safety which is of paramount importance in the preservation of lives and assets. The usage of this coating improves the fire-safety features of structures which not only increases its value but also protects its occupants.

Figure 3. The intumescent coating (a) during and (b) after the Bunsen burner test [4]

References   [1] S. Bourbigot, M. Le Bras, S. Duquesne, M. Rochery, Recent advances for intumescent polymers. Macromolecular Materials Engineering, 289 (2004) 499.   [2] K. Wu, Z.Z. Wang, H.J. Liang, Microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate: Preparation, characterization, and its flame retardance in polypropylene, Polymer Composites, 29 (2008) 854-860.   [3] S. Duquesne, S. Magnet, C Jama, R. Delobel, Intumescent paints: fire protective coatings for metallic substrates, Surface Coating & Technology 180-181 (2004) 302.   [4] M. C. Yew and N. H. Ramli Sulong. Fire-resistive performance of intumescent flame-retardant coatings for steel, Materials & Design 34(2012) 719-724.

 

This coating is typically applied on steel structures to maintain the structure properties below the critical temperature of 550°C.

This fire-resistive coating has the capability to protect structural buildings from extensive fire damage, while at the same time offering additional benefits to the coated substrates including water resistance and corrosion protection.

At present, research in intumescent fire-resistive coating for steel has been done by M.C. Yew & NH. Ramli Sulong (2012) studied the behavior of protected and unprotected steel plates in a fire test.

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.

MSSA Welcomes New Members

MSSA Welcomes
New Members
(As at June 2012)

OM-0989
PEH HONG ZEN
PETER DAN LIMITED, UKOM-0990
MOHD DANIAL BIN ZAMBERI
REKARUNDINGOM-0991
AHMAD NAZMI ZAIM
PERSADA CONSULTANCY 

OM-0992
LIM TENG WAI
SANKI KIGYO SDN BHD

OM-0993
OON TENG HUI
PERNIGAAN CERMIN & ALUMINIUM

OM-0994
MOHAMED MUBARAK BIN ABDUL WAHAB
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

 OM-0995
MOHD FADHLI B. MOHD TAHAR
SSM ASSOCIATES SDN BHDOM-0996
FATIMATUZAHRAH BT MOHD MAHIR
BLUESCOPE LYSAGHT MALAYSIA SDN BHDOM-0997
BAVANI A/P RENGARAJOO
BLUESCOPE LYSAGHT MALAYSIA SDN BHD 

OM-0998
NOR KHAIRISHAHLINDA BT ABU KASSIM
BLUESCOPE LYSAGHT MALAYSIA SDN BHD

OM-0999
KHAIRUL AZHAR B IBRAHIM
ZNK CONSULT SDN BHD

 OM-1000
LIM CHUN MAO
ZNK CONSULT SDN BHDOM-1001
SUKRI BIN DERAMAN
ZNK CONSULT SDN BHDOM-1002
YOW JAW PERNG
SEPAKAT SETIA PERUNDING SDN BHD 

OM-1003
DR. FATIMAH BINTI DE'NAN
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA (USM)

© 2016 MSSA Malaysian Structural Steel Association All Rights Reserved.