SMY Jan – March 2013
- OIC-2013: Langkawi CRC
- The Emerging Role of Dynamic Testing for Structural Health Assessment in Malaysia
- Sofiyan Yahya, on the Next Move, Part II
- 17th AGM 15 March 2013
- MOGSC Publication Issue 2
- MOGSC Publication Issue 3
OIC-2013: Langkawi CRC
Having been very well-received andbeing now an eagerly anticipatedevent the Open Ideas Competition returns this year with the primary intention of providing students of architecture and structural engineering in Malaysia the unique opportunity to collaborate in a building design that employs steel as the main structural and finishing material.While 2012 saw designs for a mixed use tower, in honour of the prestigious Le Tour de Langkawi cycling race this year’s MSSA/CIDB student competition calls for the design of the Langkawi CRC – Langkawi Cycling and Recreational Centre -to be located at Sungai Menghulu in the Island of Legends, Langkawi,Kedah.
Langkawi CRC is a multi-use facility that caters for not only multiple cycling disciplines but alsorecreational sports facilities for the non-cyclist.Its main aim is to provide an Olympic class cycling training facility for the development of members of the cycling fraternity. For this reason, it goes without saying that LCRC’s main component is a modern, fully-roofedvelodrome, which features oval tracks made of hardwood, consisting of two 1800 bends connected by two straights. The accommodation space for the velodrome is to include an entrance (entrance hall, a reception area anda security office), the arena (cycling track, multipurpose court, spectators’ seating, and media centre), a preparation centre (bike workshop, bike store and doping area), a management site (audio room, control room, data control room and commentator’s room), and service facilities (changing room, toilets, utility room, store and prayer rooms, surau).
In addition, the CRC is also to house cutting-edge sporting facilities that would serve the health/fitness and recreational needs of the people of Langkawi and promote a healthy lifestyle concept for the rest of the nation. These facilities include classrooms, resource centre, fitness studio, cycling studio, simulation room, nutrition care centre, medical care centre, bike workshop, hostel rooms, an indoor stadium and indoor and outdoor swimming pools. Another exciting installation to this sports complex is the closed road racing circuits that may be built to weave in between buildings on the site that could generate a handsome income from sports enthusiasts.
The students’ challenge is primarily addressing issues related to program, site and context, social relevance, sustainability, and materiality. They are tocreatively lay out the overall master plan of the facilities, displaying competency in architectural function and form, innovatively using steel as the main structural material, making creative use of Industrialized Building System (IBS), incorporating green building strategies (GBI), and catering for the disabled. To win, students must demonstrate successful response of the design to its surrounding context and to basic planning and architectural concepts, structural integrity and coherence of architectural and engineering vocabulary. An interesting addition to the panel judges this year is a renowned Malaysian cyclist, who will be named in due course.
A grand prize of RM10,000.00 and a challenge trophy await the champions, sponsored by CIDB. A second, third and two consolation prizes of RM7,000.00, RM5,000.00 and RM3,000.00 respectively are also up for the taking.Just like the previous competitions there will be three stages to the contest: preliminary/university level (deadlines at the discretion of the participating universities), semi-finals (tentatively 2nd October 2013) and the final stage (set for 13th November).
Past competitions have highlighted raw talent and creativity as well as hard work and determination from the contestants. It is not just design acumen that students need in order to win this competition, but they also sharpen their language, communication and negotiation skills in the process. It would be interesting to see how the teams come together this year for an even better outcome, promoting stronger architectural-engineering collaboration and promising higher quality personnel into the building and construction industry.
Understanding the durability, serviceability, safety and sustainability of a structure has never been a straightforward topic for most. More often than not, it is a cost and labour intensive exercise that sees the option of performing it limited to only severe cases or after an unexpected event has occurred on the structure. For example, a bridge that has already exceeded its design life or had just undergone an impact loading would traditionally call upon clients to employ full-scale static load tests on its bridges in order to understand its structural health. While this may be a straightforward solution when one is an operator of a few assets, it can become an enormous regime to undertake for organisations and companies that own multiple assets, all aging simultaneously. This does not only limit itself to large entities, but also to small and medium ones where the room to manoeuvre financially is much less. Therefore, this short article intends to explore the alternative of performing load testing on structures by introducing the concept of dynamic testing as a more cost-effective method of understanding the structural health of a structure. This is also intended to extend itself to more comprehensive online monitoring systems which form part and parcel of what is called today – Structural Health Monitoring (SHM).
Structures are designed and built for a specific life span. Over time, dynamic loads may lead to fatigue in some structural components, which will change the boundary conditions of the structure, adversely affecting its performance. Even if a structure is not subjected to dynamic loads, other factors such as corrosion or impact/shock loads can compromise its structural integrity.Therefore, structural health monitoring is of utmost importance to ensure that the structure continues to satisfy serviceability, safety and sustainability conditions after the completion of the structure.For structures such as bridges and high-rise buildings that are subjected to dynamic loads, dynamic testing can be carried out by utilising sensory equipment such as accelerometers and anemometers on top of complementing other static-based measurements such as displacement transducers and strain gauges.
Before going further, a few fundamental axioms of dynamic testing must be addressed: many make the mistake that dynamic testing would provide the same format of information as static testing. In fact this is a much misguided statement as dynamic testing utilises other approaches to understand the structural health of a system. What can be obtained is a structural feature extraction through signal processing and statistical analysis of the raw data to detect any sort of damage information. Oftentimes, dynamic testing takes the analysis of the structure into the frequency domain compared to the conventional time domain. This closely relates to fundamental concepts of structural dynamics where the structural system is identified through its natural frequencies, damping ratios and stiffness.
Damage detection would translate as the significant change in these dynamic parameters and depending on the resolution and location of sensors on the structure, the source of the damage can be identified directly. The Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System for Bridges (WASHMS) in Hong Kong would be a famous example of the implementation of the SHM. It is a system that has seamlessly integrated both static and dynamic monitoring in a live setup to aid the Highway Department in assessing the health of its cable-stay bridges under operational and extreme states. In addition to having a set of sensors that check for strain, temperature and wind speed, it also has accelerometers which record information which is relayed live to the Highway Department and interpreted to the dynamic parameters of the bridge. In the event of a typhoon, the entire system would be able to monitor the natural frequencies of the different spans and gauge whether there is a shift occurring, possibly leading to a loss of component stiffness. These will be cross-checked against the strain records to see if it has statically exceeded bridge allowances based on quasi-static codes.
In the offshore environment, dynamic testing is considered to be a norm in structural health monitoring.Oil operators have already implemented these on-line based dynamic monitoring systemsright from the day of the platform installation.These steel behemoths would then be monitored over its lifetime for its dynamic characteristics in tandem with environmental loads such as wind, wave and current.Such regimes would allow operators to understand if the structure has been compromised after a bout of bad weather, boat impact or topside blast incident before they can warrant a detailed inspection.This can be a time and money saver when the operator has numerous unmanned platforms and physical inspection becomes a must under periodic requirements or extreme events. This can be further compounded by logistical limitations which force the operators into prioritizing their assets and such a tool would be most handy.
While dynamic testing is not new in countries such as Hong Kong or in the offshore industry, they offer significant advantages and added value to the local testing industry in general as it is relatively cost effective to perform and could potentially lead to long-term savings when it comes to asset management. Easier said than done, the adoption may not be as straightforward as it requires asset owners and operators to understand the paradigm shift required in applying dynamic testing compared to the mainstream static load testing.
Sofiyan Yahya, on the Next Move, Part II
I was pleasantly surprised when Sofiyan Yahya, President of the Malaysian Oil and Gas Services Council (MOGSC) commented on the need to transform the representation of Malaysia’s modern society of through television, books and other forms of media. Indeed, the stereotype or distortion on the representation of social class has gone for far too long. Sofiyan felt that the oil and gas industry should be used to generate an appropriate representation of our society. Perhaps then, the young and youths would be receptive towards careers or professions in the oil and gas. In the meantime, he eagerly awaits the day when children would say, “When I grow up, I want to work on an oil rig” on locally produced programs on national television.
In the preceding issue, Sofiyan shared his optimism on the current outlook of the oil and gas industry. In this issue, he explains his perception on the difference between the oil and gas and other industries, and the common methods used in the search for business partners. With an impressive profile consisting of more than 30 years of experience in the industry, he describes the nature of the business and where to seek advice and assistance.
An Orderly, Disciplined and Coordinated Business
When I asked Sofiyan what makes the oil and gas business different, he clarified that the business is “more orderly, disciplined and coordinated,” since every aspect of the job is integral, resulting in major implications and repercussions. For instance, if 6000 bbl/d is Malaysia’s target output, a delay in the construction of a platform by just one day could incur a loss of USD$6,000,000 per day assuming that the rate is USD$100 per bbl. This loss needs to be borne by the country and would adversely affect our Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
When big sums of money are concerned, everyone involved in the process must cooperate and deliver the best result. He stressed, “deadlines must be monitored and adhered. Professionalism is second nature and safety must not be compromised. Most industries are a little lax on these work ethics.” He justified his opinion with the case of the construction of buildings or roads where the impact of a delay is not as severe to a nation since there is no punishment or significant adverse implication on those who delay or abandon the project. The same cannot be said of the oil and gas industry.
Pipeline Engineers smile as they face another day on the field
Start research now, network through cyberspace and contact embassies
For inexperienced individuals who are keen to venture as agents or to supply parts, he explained that they need to form partnerships that would enable them to practice as full-fledged agents or to form full-joint ventures. Since most local players are licensed with PETRONAS, collaborations with foreign companies should be forged instead. A market survey needs to be conducted. Sofiyan said that it is common to start off by conducting web searches through the various search engines. They need to arm themselves with as much information as possible about the market sector they plan to penetrate, understand the market needs, and explore avenues to source the product. Corresponding with relevant people and contacting embassies are also required. The trade commissioner departments of the embassies in Kuala Lumpur are like treasure troves of opportunities. Information concerning foreign companies who are keen to export their products in Malaysia like valves or pipes for instance, is normally channeled to these trade commissioners. Speaking to the trade commissioners or representatives will be useful since offers on the desired products or services can be made to them.
Solicit advice from Associations
Considering that this business involves high risk capital investments and high health and safety standards, I cannot help but broach on the subject of company safety nets. Sofiyan answered that although the only governing body is PETRONAS, associations like MOGSC can help in providing information and guidance on running the business as well as explaining the techniques of applying for the PETRONAS license. MOGSC also undertakes the role of a mediator; it proposes collaborations with potential business partners. Other associations like Malaysian Oil & Gas Engineering Consultant (MOGEC), Malaysian Off-shore Support Vessel Association (MOSVA) and Institute of Materials Malaysia (IMM) also offer similar services which are gratuitous. The President of MOGSC then adds, “MOGSC offers expert advice for business ventures. Promotion and improvement for conducive business environments are also offered. However, we do not acquire contracts for them because of our neutral stance.”
On average, platforms are built to withstand oceanic conditions for up to 30 years.
Professionalism beyond Paper Qualification
Towards the end of the interview, Sofiyan stressed that, “being in the oil and gas industry goes beyond just having the relevant academic qualification; integrity, ownership and responsibility are imperative in this field. They will need to understand how everyone involved is connected and how they fit into the big picture.” In other words, the upstream, midstream and downstream sectors need to perform their best because everyone else in the equation will be counting on them.
Nevertheless, the impact of the oil and gas industry on our country is significant. It demands high level of discipline, professionalism and integrity. These factors shape the unique and extremely competitive business that drives our economy. Sofiyan believes that it will continue to thrive.
SOFIYAN YAHYA on the next move, Pat II
by Pn Azelin Mohamed Noor
Department of Management & Humanities
Universiti Teknologi Petronas
Bandar Seri Iskandar
31750 Tronoh, Perak
17th AGM 15 March 2013
17th MSSA Annual General Meeting –Singgahsana Hotel, Petaling Jaya
2012 ended with a positively exciting notefor MSSA – most notable activities were the funding of Universiti Teknologi Petronas, UTP’s study on the sustainability of steel for offshore platform structures, the “Offshore Structures Asia” conference held with Marcus Evansin November and the strategic alliance with the Construction Industry Development Board , CIDB, which bore the International Conference on Construction Steel and the Open Ideas Competition. Accounts closed leaving MSSA with a healthy net current ratio of RM 259,665.71 in spite of the unfulfilled pledges by its main sponsor Perwaja Steel Sdn Bhd. Due to ownership changes. Perwaja, who was one of the founding members of MSSA, however, continues to be strongly supportive of MSSA, as they had been since the association’s inception.
The start of 2013 promises another year of good tidings, kicking off with MSSA’s 17th Annual General Meeting held in the morning of 19th March at Singgahsana Hotel, Petaling Jaya, whichsaw another important affair: the election of new council members for the term 2013-2014. Having confirmed the minutes of the last meeting, received the activities and financial reports and dissolved the previous term’s council line-up, CikMustazah Khalid was appointed Election Chairman. Nominations were up for the voting and the following appointments resulted:
Y. Bhg Dato’ Sri Ir. Dr. Judin Hj Abdul Karim from CIDB retains his positionas President; Ir. Stephen Tam Kah Yen from Sapurakencana as Deputy President; Prof. Dr. Azlan Bin Adnan from UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia (UTM) and Assoc Prof Ir. Dr. Mohd Shahir Liew of UTP are Vice Presidents, and Pn. Amna A. Emir of Neuformation Architects Sdn Bhd remains the Honorary Secretary-General while Mr. Matthew Tee Kai Woon of Binapuri Holdings Bhd is Honorary Treasurer.
Ordinary Council Members include: Mr. Desmond Woon Yang Leng of Ann Yak Siong Hardware SdnBhd, Mr Wong Kok Yew of Petala Unik Sdn Bhd, Y. Bhg Dato’ Ir. Dr. Abdul Aziz B Arshad of JKR Malaysia’s civil engineering structures & bridges branch; Ir. Fong Tong Weng of Perunding Legarleon Sdn Bhd, Ir. Lim Tau Soon and Ir. Keh Chin Ann of STAM Engineering Sdn Bhd, Mr. Muammar Gadaffi Bin Abu Talib of PFC Engineering Sdn Bhd, PnSariah Abd Karib from CIDB Malaysia and Ir Mohamad Mubarak b. Abdul Wahab of UTP. In addition, two new Honorary Internal Auditors were also appointed, and they were Pn Noor Amila bt Wan Abdullah Zawawi and MrLoiChuan Yew.
Ir Stephen Tam Kah Yen, who chaired the AGM in place of Y Bhg Dato’ Sri Ir. Dr. Judin Abdul Karim who had to be in Sabah, thanked the previous committee for their services especially Assoc. Prof Ir Dr Shahir Lew, who had been a prime mover in MSSA’s oil and gas endeavours in the last two years. He also expressed delight to see new faces in the new line-up of council members.
On the subject of new faces, Pn. Amna reported a larger membership base for MSSA, too, which now boasts a total of 901 members. This number does not include student members, who make up over 45% of the entire MSSA family. This is indeed a positive development and very agreeable. The only factor, nonetheless, that makes the heart sink a little is that out of almost a thousand members listed only 55 turned up for the AGM!Granted, physical distance, calls of duty and other pressing engagements may have prevented attendance but it is hoped that more members will make the time to show support for MSSA in upcoming general meetings especially when elections take place.
MOGSC Publication Issue 2
Off the coasts of Malaysia sit approximately 280 oil and gas jacket platforms. With many of these platforms reaching the end of their service-life, operators are facing the consequences of their old age – the delayed challenges of decommissioning.
Decommissioning is a long, complex and costly business. Following initial engineering planning, work moves offshore to plug wells, clean and decontaminate the site and prepare the platform for removal. Heavy-lift vessels are engaged to remove the top-side and sub structures and transport them to yards where materials are recycled or scrapped. Finally, any pipelines remaining in situ must be flushed, filled, plugged and buried to avoid any future incidents. From beginning to end, projects could last years. With so many matters at stake, other forms of decommissioning should not be overruled.
Rigs-to-reefs, the conversion of disused oil platform jackets into artificial reefs, has been applied in the United States since the late 1980s as an option for reusing offshore structures as functional reefs with over 400 successful projects. It is well established in the Gulf of Mexico, notably under the Louisiana Artificial Reef Development Programme. Its success is built upon acknowledgement from a wide range of stakeholders of the benefits of such hard bottom habitat remaining in the Gulf, particularly to the recreational fishing industry, and on their subsequent participation in reef designation and management. While oil platforms are often perceived as a threat to biological conservation, research done in the Gulf of Mexico and Japan indicates that artificial reefs can actually enhance ecosystems and generate revenue. In a comparable context, will our seas benefit from artificial reefs?
The potentials of artificial reefs
An alternative to platform decommissioning in Malaysia would be to partially remove the disused jackets and transport it further off the coast to function as artificial reefs. Alternatively, the removed section could be recycled onshore, leaving the other half in-situ as vertical artificial reefs.
With most of the disused platforms established more than 15 years, it would be more disruptive to the marine environment given the complete removal of the platform. These structures have long been adopted by life in the ocean as a habitat – with creatures growing on the structures or seeking shelter among the platform itself. To subsequently remove them could really be traumatic for the organisms – the life encrusted on the platforms would die and the habitat which countless organisms seek shelter at is taken away.
With partial removal and rigs-to-reef conversion, part of the established habitat is removed for safety of navigation purposes, to form another useful habitat in another area. A recent comprehensive review of the scientific literature on rigs-to-reefs (Macreadie et al., 2011) concluded that it has positive effects on deep-sea benthic communities and the upcoming decommissioning surge could provide an opportunity to create large scale deep rigs-to-reefs to benefit ocean life and generate revenue.
Figure 1: Partial removal of a platform.
(Left) Figure 2: Lower section of an oil rig encrusted with marine life (PreserveReefs.org)
(Right) Figure 3: The rich marine life surrounding an artificial reef (theseamonster.net)
Similarly, an extensive commissioned study of the Ekofisk field installations in Norwegian waters recommended the creation of a large rigs-to-reef complex for stock protection out of redundant platforms (Cripps and Aabel, 1998). Decommissioned platforms make ideal artificial reefs. Their large, open structure allows easy circulation for fish and provides sanctuaries for barnacles, corals, sponges, clams, bryozoans, and hydroids. Platforms make unique artificial reefs as they extend vertically through the water column. In natural systems, various photic zones may exist as species compositions change with depth.
Within six months to a year after a platform is initially placed on the sea floor, it will be a thriving reef ecosystem completely covered with marine life and thus developing a more complex food chain. Given this eco-biological standpoint, rigs-to-reefs for the purpose of recreational fisheries and tourist attraction remain promising in Malaysia, which is blessed with one of the richest marine environments in the Indo-Pacific Basin.
The potential benefits are more than just providing organisms with habitat. These artificial reefs could also function to protect organisms by acting as physical barriers to exclude illegal bottom trawlers. These organisms are highly vulnerable to exploitation because they are slow growing, reproduce few offspring and procreate late relative to their shallower-water counterparts. By positioning rigs strategically within the deep sea, it would be possible to create stepping stones within otherwise inhospitable areas. This could make it easier for species to move from one area to another.
Scientific researched to date has established that rigs-to-reef provide habitat for numerous marine species. A broad coalition of divers, scientist and environmentalists are challenging the conventional practice of the complete removal of oil platforms. Although the state of debate in Malaysia is still at its premature stage, the potentials of rigs-to-reef conversions should be advocated, given the right platforms and sites. Part II of the series will explore the way forward for partially removed rigs-to- reef in Malaysia.
The article represents the personal views of the author(s) and is in any way affiliated to any associations. This series of articles aims to promote awareness in decommissioning and explore the many end-of-life alternatives for an offshore platform. The research for this article was sponsored by MSSA
MOGSC Publication Issue 3
The suitability of decommissioned oil and gas installations in the Malaysia artificial reefs has been the subject of much debate. Granted, the scientific issues relating to rigs-to- reefs conversions are complex. The political and legal issues are even more so.
Hurdles to cross
The decommissioning of oil and gas installations in Malaysia is primarily governed by the PETRONAS Decommissioning Guidelines which are based on recognized international guidelines such as the 1989 International Marine Organization Guidelines and Standards and the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) which is pro-complete removal of all structures in water depths of less than 100 meters and substructures weighing less than 4000 tonnes. Both place importance in “the preservation of the marine environment, the safety of navigation, and the legitimate interests of other users of the sea”.
Nevertheless, these standards allow partial removal or non-removal based on a case-by-case evaluation of potential effect on safety of navigation, future effects on marine environment and living resources, as well as technical feasibility and risks associated to removal. In legal terms, rigs-to-reefs conversions are not prohibited. IMO Resolution A.672 (16), as a matter of fact, permits offshore installations to “serve a new use if permitted to remain wholly or partially in place on the seabed (such as enhancement of a living resource)”.
With advances in navigation and communication technology these days, the safety of offshore traffic would not be compromised relative to when the laws were first drawn. More accurate and up-to-date vital information on ocean bathymetry and global positioning are now readily available. Of course, a minimum free space distance between the artificial reef and water surface should be cautiously imposed.
Recent research done by marine biologists in Sydney University of Technology has ratified that direct negative impacts due to the release of contaminants of the disused platforms would be localized. Similarly, by studying the artificial reefs effects of World War II shipwrecks, the US Minerals Management Service found that the state of decay of the wrecks has little effect on the state of the reef and found an even greater diversity of sea creatures than previously thought.
Furthermore, partial removal of platforms is technically safer than completely removing the platform. In comparison to partial removal, complete removal involved much larger amount of work required to remove the jacket. A detailed engineering study is necessary to determine how the jacket will be cut (size, weight, and location). Locations to cut the jacket are then established, based on the jacket sections configurations. Rigging and handling the jacket sections will at times be very challenging to the heavy lift vessel, requiring an extensive group of personnel.
The Brent Spar incident was a major turning point in decommissioning policies globally. In the wake of Greenpeace’s protest of Shell’s planned deepwater disposal of the Brent Spar facility and subsequent public outcry, the international political community worked swiftly to ban the ocean disposal of most types of offshore installations. But is it really a necessary and practical move?
With the endorsement of independent external organizations and contractors and legal bodies, Shell planned for a deep sea disposal for the disused Brent Spar. Due to outrage by a sizeable number of the public with a rooted belief in the principle of “clean seas”, Shell abandoned the disposal plan in June 1995 although it was completely legal by international standards. Instead, the Spar was eventually placed on the Norwegian seabed to be reuse as the base of a new quay.
The Brent Spar incident may be exaggerated for the Malaysian scene, however, it serves as a good lesson in managing the expectations and understanding of stakeholders. In controversial matters, good science and regulatory compliance are not sufficient in gaining the trust of the public.
The way forward
Partial removal and artificial reef conversions should definitely be on the cards for platform decommissioning given the many plus points of this concept. To materialize the notion put forth, a few matters should be overseen.
To begin with, a legal definition of the extent of water depth the reef is placed should be outlined. Ocean depths within Peninsular Malaysian waters range from 50 to 90 m at distances around 100km to 200 km from the shoreline. Meanwhile waters off Sarawak show slightly greater depth of up to 150m. The most promising is Sabah whose waters have depth plunging to 3000m. In the context of this concept, deep sea should redefined as ocean depth greater than 100m and located within the fringes of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
Another legal issue at hand is the liability of the reef. As complications relating to the reefs at deeper oceans only affects certain groups of the public (i.e. marine navigation industry), effective management of information as mentioned earlier is key in keeping problems at bay.
Subsequently, a third party council is to be established in assessing the potential risks involved, which includes the physical damage to habitats and organisms within the ‘drop zone’ and contamination triggered . The council can also render its assistance to the industry in certifying the sites identified for reefing.
Most importantly, given Shell’s expensive lesson learnt, there must be extensive communication efforts in educating the general public on the practicality and benefits of the deep sea artificial reefs. Public perception of the concept as a disposal method has to be eradicated through appropriate dialogues and media. Instead, it should be viewed as an alternative and sustainable use of existing material. Furthermore, the prospect of trading these disused platforms to other nations may possibly be revenue generating.
Nonetheless, the idea put forward here is still debatable, akin to other methods of platform decommissioning be it industry practised or conceptual. Oceana, an advocacy organization that supported California’s new rigs-to-reefs law (A.B. 2503), recently noted that “while oil platforms may appear to benefit certain species and recreational stakeholders, decisions on decommissioning must also take into account there is no evidence platforms provide net ecological benefits to the marine ecosystem as a whole relative to areas left in their natural state.” With the rapidly developing decommissioning market in Malaysia, the government, community and industry should keep an open mind to other methods of decommissioning a disused oil platform. Essentially, the endof- life fate of a platform should be based on the suitability of the structure and site (if any), on a case -by-case basis.
The article represents the personal views of the author(s) and is in any way affiliated to any associations. This series of articles aims to promote awareness in decommissioning and explore the many end-of-life alternatives of an offshore platform.
The research for this article was sponsored by MSSA